Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects individuals assigned female at birth, particularly during their reproductive years. PCOS is characterised by a range of symptoms that can significantly impact physical health, emotional well-being, and fertility. Despite its prevalence and impact, PCOS remains a somewhat enigmatic condition, with ongoing research aimed at unravelling its complexities. In this article, we will delve into what PCOS is, its causes, symptoms, available treatment options, ongoing research, and support resources for individuals affected by this disorder.


What is PCOS?

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, often abbreviated as PCOS, is a multifactorial endocrine disorder that affects the ovaries. It is characterised by hormonal imbalances, irregular menstruation, and the growth of small cysts on the ovaries. PCOS can manifest in various ways and may present differently among individuals. Common features of PCOS include irregular menstrual cycles, excessive androgen levels (male hormones), and polycystic ovaries seen on ultrasound.


Causes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome:

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several potential contributing factors include:

  1. Hormonal Imbalances: PCOS is associated with imbalances in reproductive hormones, particularly elevated levels of androgens (such as testosterone) and insulin. Insulin resistance, a condition where the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin, is common in individuals with PCOS.
  2. Genetics: There appears to be a genetic component to PCOS, as it often runs in families. Specific genetic variations may predispose individuals to the development of PCOS.
  3. Lifestyle Factors: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are associated with an increased risk of developing PCOS. Excess weight can exacerbate insulin resistance and hormonal imbalances, worsening the symptoms of PCOS.


Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome:

PCOS can manifest with a variety of symptoms, which may vary in severity among individuals. Common signs and symptoms include:


– Irregular menstrual cycles or absence of menstruation

– Excessive hair growth (hirsutism), often in a male-pattern distribution

– Acne and oily skin

– Weight gain or difficulty losing weight

– Thinning hair or male-pattern baldness

– Insulin resistance and associated symptoms such as difficulty controlling blood sugar levels

– Difficulty conceiving (infertility) due to irregular ovulation

– Mood swings, depression, or anxiety



Diagnosing PCOS typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Diagnostic criteria may include:


– Menstrual irregularities

– Clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism

– Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound


Treatment Options:

While there is no cure for PCOS, various treatment options are available to manage its symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. Treatment strategies may include:


  1. Lifestyle Modifications: Adopting a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a balanced diet, can help manage weight, improve insulin sensitivity, and alleviate symptoms of PCOS.
  2. Medications: Hormonal contraceptives (such as birth control pills) may be prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels. Anti-androgen medications can help alleviate symptoms such as hirsutism and acne. Metformin, a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes, may be prescribed to improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with PCOS.
  3. Fertility Treatments: For individuals struggling with infertility due to PCOS, fertility treatments such as ovulation induction with medications like clomiphene citrate or assisted reproductive technologies (such as in vitro fertilisation) may be recommended.
  4. Surgery: In some cases, ovarian drilling surgery may be performed to induce ovulation in individuals with PCOS who have not responded to other treatments.


Support Resources:

For individuals living with PCOS, access to reliable information and support networks is essential. Several evidence-based websites offer resources, educational materials, and community forums for individuals affected by PCOS. The following organizations provide valuable support for individuals with PCOS and their families:


  1. PCOS Challenge: PCOS Challenge is a non-profit organization dedicated to raising awareness of PCOS and providing support and resources for those affected by the condition. Their website offers educational materials, community forums, and advocacy opportunities for individuals with PCOS. https://pcoschallenge.org/


  1. Verity: Verity is a self-help group for those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).  The group was established in 1997 to share the truth about the condition and improve the lives of individuals living with PCOS.  The charity is run by a dedicated board of Volunteer Trustees supported by a team of further volunteers, who all support thousands both in the UK and internationally.  https://www.verity-pcos.org.uk/


In conclusion, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. While the exact cause of PCOS remains elusive, ongoing research continues to shed light on its underlying mechanisms and improve treatment options. By raising awareness, providing support, and advancing research efforts, we can empower individuals with PCOS to effectively manage their condition and improve their quality of life.




  1. Genetic Basis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Current Perspectives


  1. Large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome suggests shared genetic architecture for different diagnosis criteria. Published: December 19, 2018. Felix Day, Tugce Karaderi, Michelle R. Jones, Cindy Meun , Chunyan He, Alex Drong, Peter Kraft, Nan Lin, Hongyan Huang, Linda Broer, Reedik Magi, Richa Saxena, Triin Laisk, Corrine K. Welt


These references provide scientific insights into the genetic and treatment aspects of PCOS, respectively.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice. Individuals with concerns about PCOS or its management should consult with a qualified healthcare provider.