Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

Unveiling Premature Ovarian Insufficiency: Diagnosis, Treatment, and the Psychological Impact

Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), formerly known as premature ovarian failure, is a condition that affects women 1 in 100, 40 years olds. Menopause occurring between 40 and 45 years of age is known is known as premature menopause, leading to a depletion of ovarian follicles and hormonal imbalance. POI is a debilitating disorder and impacts fertility and hormone regulation, causing significant psychological symptoms that can affect a woman’s overall well-being. In this blog, we will delve into the various aspects of POI, including its diagnosis, treatment options, and the psychological toll it can take on those diagnosed with the condition.

Understanding Premature Ovarian Insufficiency:
POI is characterized by the cessation of regular menstrual cycles and reduced oestrogen levels in younger women, which can lead to anovulation and infertility. Unlike natural menopause, which occurs around the age of 50, POI manifests before the age of 40. The exact cause of POI is often elusive, but it can result from genetic factors, autoimmune disorders, environmental factors, or certain medical treatments like chemotherapy and radiation.

As this is a condition occurring in young women, they need advice on not only fertility but contraception as there is a background risk of 5-10% chance of spontaneous ovulation.

Diagnosis of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency:
Diagnosing POI requires careful evaluation and assessment by a healthcare professional. The process involves:

  1. Medical History: The doctor will take a detailed medical history, including any family history of early menopause or autoimmune disorders.
  2. Physical Examination: A physical examination will be performed to check for any signs of hormonal imbalance or underlying health conditions.
  3. Hormone Levels: Blood tests are crucial in determining hormone levels, such as FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and oestradiol and thyroid function. Elevated FSH and low oestradiol levels are highly suggestive of POI.
  4. Ultrasound: A transvaginal ultrasound maybe performed in some cases to assess ovarian size and follicle count, which can help confirm the diagnosis.
  5. Karyotype Analysis: Genetic testing may be conducted to identify any chromosomal abnormalities that could contribute to POI.

Treatment Options:
While there is no cure for POI, several treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve overall health:

  1. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): oestrogen therapy can help alleviate symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood swings. Combined with progesterone in women with a uterus, HRT can reduce the risk of endometrial cancer.

    In younger women the combined contraception pill, taken all the time rather than 3 out of every 4 weeks is a good option, as this enables them to be the same as their peers.

  2. Fertility Treatments: For women desiring to conceive, assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization (IVF) with donor eggs may be an option.
  3. Bone Health Management: Calcium and vitamin D supplements may be recommended to support bone health, as reduced oestrogen levels can increase the risk of osteoporosis.
  4. Emotional Support: Psychological counselling and support groups can help women cope with the emotional impact of POI and its effects on fertility.


Psychological Symptoms of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency:
Receiving a diagnosis of POI can be emotionally distressing for women, leading to various psychological symptoms, including:

  1. Anxiety and Depression: The sudden disruption of fertility and hormonal changes can trigger anxiety and depression in many women.
  2. Loss and Grief: Women diagnosed with POI may experience feelings of loss and grief related to the loss of their reproductive potential.
  3. Identity and Self-Esteem: Infertility and early menopause can challenge a woman’s sense of identity and affect self-esteem and body image.
  4. Social Isolation: Women with POI might feel isolated, especially if they encounter difficulties in relating to others who do not share their experience.



Premature Ovarian Insufficiency is a challenging condition that affects women at a young age, causing infertility and hormonal imbalances. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and improve the overall well-being of those affected. Understanding the psychological impact of POI is vital to provide comprehensive care and emotional support to women navigating through this life-altering diagnosis.



  1. Nelson LM. Clinical practice. Primary ovarian insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(6):606-614.
  2. Bidet M, Bachelot A, Bissauge E, et al. Resumption of ovarian function and pregnancies in 358 patients with premature ovarian failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(12):3864-3872.
  3. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 141: management of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(1):202-216.
  4. Schmidt PJ. Mood, depression, and reproductive hormones in the menopausal transition. Am J Med. 2005;118 Suppl 12B:54-58.
  5. Verheecke M, Van der Steenstraten IM, Van den Abbeel E, et al. Cancer and fertility preservation: fertility preservation in breast cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;135(1):173-178.